The archaeological discoveries of Ecuador are classified in the following categories of time, organized and divided into the Aboriginal history of the country and its socio-cultural development before the arrival of the Spanish colonization that broke this autonomous process.
A brief outline: the first period is the Paleoindian or Pre ceramic in which are located some of the archeological museums in situ mentioned below, such as Inga or La Vega. The archaeological evidence allows the scientific to say that our story begins 11,000 years ago, a period in which the country has already left one of the coldest times of the ice age and begins to enter into a process of climate improvement.
The men and women of the Paleo-Indian inhabit the national territory and expands to the mountains and the coast. Their main means of subsistence was the hunting, fishing and harvesting of fruits, activity of the nomadic groups organized in hordes or groups.
Later started the formative period, Periodo Formativo, or commonly known as the history of Ecuador from 4000 B.C. to 300 A.C. This period is characterized by the development of a new lifestyle with food production: agriculture production. At the end of the formative period occurs a huge expansion of the human groups who had taken the village as away of life. Sedentary cultures were located in permanent places, and at the end of this period village appear in lowlands of the coast, Highlands and Amazon.
The following period is the Regional Development that took place from 300 B.C to 700 A.C. It is characterized by a social organization based on a stratified society according to the specialization of the work and activities of Government. Human groups were organized into ethnic Lordships, governed by authorities directly related to religion. In this period also initiated the development of astronomy and the creation of the agricultural calendar, as well as the study of medicine.
Our history continues with the Integration Period, from 800 A.C. The territory of the current Ecuador was formed by political units of great territorial extension, organized under the system of Chieftainships, cacicazgo. Control of urban, religious and productive centers based on the domain of the territory, sometimes by military means, therefore the civil wars to achieve local control. These societies developed a ceremonial and funerary architecture that will be reinforced in the Inca period.
The Inca Period is relatively short, began in 1480 A.C. During this period occurred the development of urban centers of megalithic features, it means cities like the imperial inca style. Also were built in this period of expansion a large military, road and ceremonial infrastructure bringing together the ancestral knowledge of the Andes and adapting it to the social features of the Inca Empire.
The Conquerors impose a pantheistic religion, heliolatrica (centered on the adoration of the Sun) as the mandatory official religion throughout the territory of the current Ecuador that mostly had a polytheistic religion. The new religion was strongly related to astronomy and managed by a priestly class linked to the State.